Spring vetch

Spring vetch (Vicia sativa) is an annual plant of the legume family. Taproot with well developed lateral roots. The stem is thin, branched, decumbent, 80-100 cm long. The leaves are compound-pinnate of 5-8 pairs of leaflets ending in antennae. The flowers are purple, pink, sometimes white, self-pollinating. The fruit is a multi-seeded bean. The mass of 1000 seeds is 40-60 g. Flowering occurs 40-60 days after germination, cutting maturity is 15-20 days later, and the seeds ripen after 75-140 days.

Seed germination begins at a temperature of 2-4°C. Spring vetch is undemanding to soils. As green manure is valued for early maturity (one of the highest among legumes), which makes it possible to use it in intermediate crops (before winter crops or after winter and early spring cereals and vegetables). Winter vetch manages to produce a crop of green mass for planting seedlings of tomatoes, peppers and other crops. Vika has high fodder qualities and is used for hay, green fodder, grain and silage. 1 kg of dry weight contains 150-190 g of protein, 230-270 g of fiber and up to 37 mg of carotene. Vika is sown in a mixture with oats or other cereals. In the mixture, it lodges less, gives greater yields and is better eaten by animals. On one hectare, vetch accumulates 40-50 kg of nitrogen.